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Bhagat Singh Biography

Bhagat Singh, one of India’s most revered and iconic freedom fighters, played a pivotal role in the country’s struggle for independence from British colonial rule. Born on September 28, 1907, in Banga, Punjab, Bhagat Singh’s life and actions have left an indelible mark on the annals of Indian history. This comprehensive narrative delves into the life, ideals, sacrifices, and enduring legacy of this valiant revolutionary.

Early Life and Education

Bhagat Singh was born to Kishan Singh Sandhu and Vidyavati Kaur in a Sikh family with a history of political activism and freedom fighting. He received his early education in his hometown, and his family’s involvement in the freedom movement deeply influenced his outlook.

Influence of Jallianwala Bagh Massacre

The infamous Jallianwala Bagh Massacre of 1919, where British troops opened fire on a peaceful gathering of Indian protesters, had a profound impact on young Bhagat Singh. Witnessing the brutality of the colonial rulers intensified his resolve to fight against the oppressive regime.

Role of HSRA:

Bhagat Singh was actively involved with the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA), a revolutionary organization committed to ending British rule in India. He believed in the use of armed struggle to achieve India’s independence and was determined to confront the British oppressors.

Since Bhagat had been involved in the Saunders shooting, the HSRA leadership was convinced that his apprehension would lead to his execution, hence they were initially against his involvement in the bombing. But in the end, they concluded that he was the best option available. While the Assembly was in session on April 8, 1929, Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt hurled two bombs into the parliament from the public gallery. The Viceroy’s Executive Council member for finance, George Ernest Schuster, was among the members injured despite the bombs’ intended non-lethal effect. The Assembly was filled with smoke from the explosions, and if Singh and Dutt had wanted to, they could have undoubtedly escaped in the commotion. Rather,

Lala Lajpat Rai’s Death:

One of the turning points in Bhagat Singh’s life was the death of prominent freedom fighter Lala Lajpat Rai. During a protest against the Simon Commission in 1928, Lala Lajpat Rai was brutally beaten by the police, leading to his untimely demise. In retaliation, Bhagat Singh and his associates plotted to avenge Lala Lajpat Rai’s death by targeting the police officer responsible, James A. Saunders.

Assembly Bombing and the Leaflet:

In pursuit of their mission, Bhagat Singh, along with Batukeshwar Dutt, threw non-lethal smoke bombs in the Central Legislative Assembly in Delhi on April 8, 1929. Their intention was to protest against repressive laws and make their voices heard. Bhagat Singh also left a leaflet in the Assembly chamber, which condemned colonial rule and outlined their demands.

Arrest and Hunger Strike

Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt willingly courted arrest after the Assembly bombing. Inside the prison, they began a hunger strike to demand better treatment for political prisoners. Their protest attracted significant public attention and support.

In the Assembly Bomb case, his life sentence was postponed until the outcome of the Saunders case.[43] From the Delhi jail, he was transferred to Central Jail Mianwali.(40) He saw prejudice there between prisoners who were European and those who were Indian. He saw himself as a political prisoner, just like everyone else. He mentioned that he wasn’t getting an improved diet at Mianwali, but he had gotten one in Delhi. He organized a hunger strike with other Indian political prisoners who he believed were being treated like normal criminals. They called for parity in the standards of food, clothes, and toiletries.

Death of Lala Lajpat Rai’s Avenger

James A. Saunders, the police officer responsible for Lala Lajpat Rai’s death, succumbed to injuries from the Assembly bombing. Bhagat Singh, who had targeted Saunders, was now accused of murder.

Trial and Courtroom Defiance

Bhagat Singh, along with Rajguru and Sukhdev, faced trial for their involvement in the Assembly bombing. During the trial, they used the courtroom as a platform to convey their revolutionary ideas and defy the British authorities. Their fearlessness and patriotism resonated with the masses.

Incarceration and Fasting Unto Death

While imprisoned in the Lahore Central Jail, Bhagat Singh embarked on a prolonged hunger strike to protest against the oppressive treatment of political prisoners. His health deteriorated, and the colonial government was compelled to make certain concessions.

March 23, 1931 – The Martyrdom

On March 23, 1931, Bhagat Singh, along with Rajguru and Sukhdev, was sentenced to death for their role in the murder of James A. Saunders. Despite nationwide appeals for clemency and a growing wave of public support, they were executed by hanging. The sacrifice of these young revolutionaries shook the conscience of the nation and fueled the fire of the independence movement.

That Gandhi had a chance to avert Singh’s execution, however, has been the subject of baseless allegations. It is, however, maintained that Gandhi tried his utmost to spare Singh’s life despite lacking sufficient power with the British to prevent the execution, much less plan it. Gandhi would not have wanted Singh dead, according to admirers of Gandhi, because Singh’s involvement in the independence movement did not pose a threat to Gandhi’s leadership of it. Gandhi contended consistently that Singh’s patriotism was greatly admirable. Not only that, but he declared he had no ability to stop Singh’s execution and that he was against the death penalty in general. Gandhi stated following the death of Singh: “The government definitely Had right to put these men to death. Nonetheless, some rights only serve to honor their holders when they are used in name only.” Gandhi also said, in reference to the death penalty, that “I cannot in good conscience consent to anyone being executed.”

Enduring Legacy

Bhagat Singh’s legacy continues to inspire generations of Indians. He is remembered as a fearless patriot who was willing to lay down his life for the cause of freedom. His commitment to non-violence and social justice, as reflected in his writing and speeches, remains a guiding light for those who seek a just and egalitarian society.

Posthumous Recognition

Bhagat Singh’s heroism and sacrifice have been recognized posthumously. His legacy has been honored with various awards, institutions, and memorials in his name. The Shaheed-e-Azam Sardar Bhagat Singh Museum in Khatkar Kalan, Punjab, commemorates his life and contributions.

Cinematic and Literary Tribute

Bhagat Singh’s life and struggle have been the subject of numerous books, documentaries, and films. The 2002 film “The Legend of Bhagat Singh,” starring Ajay Devgn, depicted his life and sacrifices and received critical acclaim.


Bhagat Singh’s unwavering commitment to the cause of India’s independence, his defiance in the face of colonial oppression, and his ultimate sacrifice have etched his name in the annals of history as a national hero and martyr. His legacy continues to serve as a symbol of courage and patriotism, inspiring countless individuals to stand up for justice, freedom, and equality. Bhagat Singh’s life and ideals remain an integral part of India’s rich tapestry of freedom struggle and continue to ignite the spirit of nationalism and social change.

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